Today, let's talk about aircraft tractors. Because the size of the aircraft is relatively large, the cockpit's visual field coverage is too small, and it is dangerous to rely on the pilot to operate it on the ground. At this time, a tractor is needed to move the aircraft, especially in the place where the aircraft carrier is rich. It is indispensable for tractors. However, such important things are often overlooked by laymen, but are most popular in the model world.
There is not much to say about the tractors of conventional civil airliners. The restrictions of this type of cars are not so strict. The car body can be made relatively large. The main technical difficulty lies in the wheel lift system.
When early military airports had the concept of tractors, they generally arbitrarily found a vehicle that was powerful at low speeds, such as off-road vehicles, small and medium-sized trucks, and tractors.
These three types of vehicles can basically be driven by four wheels. Whether they are pushed or pulled, they can effectively avoid skidding. Off-road vehicles and tractors also have traction devices, which were indeed more suitable choices.
However, these cars were originally designed for the army, and they are not suitable for pulling airplanes. It is okay to use them in the short term, and various problems will become apparent in the long term. First of all, the body is too high, in order to avoid collision with the nose of the aircraft, the towbar has to be long, and it wastes time and space to run. Secondly, its structure is not suitable for long-time towing at the beginning of design. It has a high center of gravity, a thin frame, and a short service life. The power system is also not suitable for high-load operation at low speeds, which is a great torment to the engine and drive train. Later, with the popularity of more advanced and sophisticated fighters, countries began to design their own military tractors. The main features are low body height, regular appearance, small turning radius, strong body structure, seat arrangements to facilitate members getting on and off, and some with additional functions, such as aircraft tractors on the aircraft carrier deck with air pumps. The start of the fighter engine provides a source of power.
To classify tractors, they are generally divided into rod tractors and rodless tractors. As the name suggests, when a tractor is connected to an aircraft, one has a towbar and one does not have a towbar. A towbar tractor has lower requirements on the body itself The layout of the car body does not need to be too compact. The opposite is true for rodless tractors. Because the car body is directly connected to the wheels, it has a very high space utilization rate.
Manual transmissions and clutches in traditional vehicles are prone to vehicle setbacks and may damage aircraft, so most countries have begun to use transmissions with hydraulic transmissions. China is relatively special. The earliest batch of military aircraft tractors used hydraulic transmission. The design task of that year was assigned to the Hydraulic Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Machinery. What is the difference between hydraulic and hydraulic transmissions?
Hydraulic transmission is like a waterwheel, relying on the kinetic energy of the liquid to complete the action
Hydraulic transmission is like a needle tube, relying on the pressure of the liquid to complete the action
The design concepts of military tractors in China and western countries are generally the same, but they are slightly different in versatility. For example, the top speed of the U.S. military tractor is about 25 kilometers per hour, while the domestic requirement is 40 kilometers per hour. Because our tractors sometimes have to handle cargo and manned tasks, the speed range is designed to be relatively large. The design of the US military's tractors advocates minimalism. There is no extra place, and the driver's seat is extremely simple.
China not only has cockpits, but also relatively luxurious equipment such as air conditioners. For the U.S. military, vehicles are more specialized and pay more attention to each job. Therefore, there are many types of ground support vehicles, and tractors often use small diameter tires and compact bodies. In China, more large-diameter tires are used, and larger wheel bounce heights are reserved to meet the requirements of driving and even off-road performance. In the last century, domestic tractors have been so comprehensive and their performance is not weak, but the technology is a little backward, while Western countries despise Chinese fighters. But they are very optimistic about the rod and rodless general tractors in China.
Although China's tractors have luxurious configurations, they even praise the logistics of the U.S. military, but after getting on the aircraft carrier, they returned to before liberation. The aircraft carrier is really full of earth and gold. Regardless of which aircraft carrier it is, the tractors are all in a minimalist style. 360-degree panoramic convertible cockpit, ultra-low ground clearance, mid-engine, low-profile body, ultra-short. Wheelbase, high torque, high-performance four-wheel-drive system, turning radius arrogant to the crowd, I don't know the specific parameters, anyway, it is very good. At the same time, it also has a high-strength rigid frame, and the body skin is extremely regular, showing a luxurious texture. The service is absolutely attentive, and someone is there every day to check the condition of the vehicle.
Hmm ... not in India, you can get a tractor directly on the aircraft carrier.
An aircraft carrier has two different carrier-based aircraft tractors, one on the deck and the other in the hangar. The space in the hangar is even tighter, so all are rodless tractors and the body size To be compact, there are only 3 wheels, and the driver even has to sit in the air. In comparison, the ground crew working at the airport is really happy.
With the advancement of technology, unmanned tractors have appeared. This type of tractor uses electric drive, which can make the body extremely low, and because the motor inherently has large torque, and the speed and horsepower are also easy to control, there is no need to worry about performance. The French carrier Charles de Gaulle has tested unmanned tractors
The only thing to worry about is that the body is too low, what to do if it rains and is flooded. Of course, R & D personnel can not think of such a problem, unmanned tractor is a direction worth considering, we will wait and see.
Although it was said how important the tractor is, advanced fighters need excellent tractors to support them, but if the situation is urgent, how much can be managed, like forklifts, off-road vehicles, tractors, as long as they have towing hooks, they can You have to get up, really anxious, and push the plane to the runway.